The pedagogical design of collaborative knowledge practices should be seen more as providing basic supporting structures that establish the elementary preconditions for the inquiry culture to emerge. They do not explicitly determine the modes of action or learning results, but are designed to offer affordances for the eligible activity (Kozma, 2003) and “to promote a self-organizing process in which ideas keep getting better” (Scardamalia & Bereiter, 2006, 31).
Some recent studies have given a central focus to the notion of infrastructure in discussing the pedagogical design of knowledge-creation practices (Guribye, 2005; Lakkala et al., 2005; Lipponen & Lallimo, 2004). We have operationalized the ideas as a framework of pedagogical infrastructures that can be used to analyze and design educational settings aiming at advancing collaborative knowledge practices (Lakkala et al., submitted). Based on previous studies, we suggest the framework include the following four elements:
Bielaczyc, K. (2001). Designing social infrastructure: the challenge of building computer-supported learning communities. In P. Dillenbourg, A. Eurelings and K. Hakkarainen (Eds.), European perspectives on computer-supported collaborative learning (106-114). Maastricht: Maastricht McLuhan Institute. Available online: http://www.ll.unimaas.nl/euro-cscl/Papers/15.doc
Bielaczyc, K. (2006). Designing social infrastructure: Critical issues in creating learning environments with technology. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 15(3), 301-329.
Guribye, F. (2005). Infrastructures for learning: Ethnographic inquiries into the social and technical conditions of education and training. Doctoral dissertation, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway. Retrieved from: http://hdl.handle.net/1956/859 (December 4, 2006).
Kozma, R. (2003). The material features of multiple representations and their cognitive and social affordances for science understanding. Learning and Instruction, 13(2), 205-226.
Lakkala, M., Lallimo, J., & Hakkarainen, K. (2005). Teachers’ pedagogical designs for technology-supported collective inquiry: a national case study. Computers and Education , 45(3), 337-356. Available online: http://www.helsinki.fi/science/networkedlearning/material/LakkalaLallimoHakkarainen2005.pdf.
Lakkala, M., Muukkonen, H., Paavola, S., & Hakkarainen, K. (submitted). Designing pedagogical infrastructures in university courses for technology-enhanced collaborative inquiry. A manuscript submitted for publication.
Lipponen, L., & Lallimo, J. (2004). From collaborative technology to collaborative use of technology: Designing learning oriented infrastructures. Educational Media International, 41(2), 111-116.
Paavola, S., Lipponen, L., & Hakkarainen, K. (2002). Epistemological foundations for CSCL: a comparison of three models of innovative knowledge communities. In G. Stahl (Ed.) Computer support for collaborative learning: foundations for a CSCL community (pp. 24-32). Hillsdale: Erlbaum.
Scardamalia, M., & Bereiter, C. (2006). Does Education for the Knowledge Age Need a New Science? European Journal of School Psychology, 3(1), 21-40.
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