A general and extensive approach to human and social sciences developed initially by Russian researchers (especially by Lev Vygotsky and A. N. Leont’ev) beginning in the 1920s. Activity theory emphasizes the object-orientedness of human activity that is mediated
by cultural means and artefacts (especially by tools and signs). The focus is on historically developing activity systems
where the division of labour and collective activity are essential elements.
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